Actually, back before the 1970s, plumes of thick, foul smoke pouring from a car’s exhaust probably meant your ride was running just fine. But car-centric cities like Los Angeles were choking on the fumes, so automakers had to clean up their acts. Today, exhaust streams are so pristine that they’re often not even visible to the naked eye.
Unless, that is, something’s wrong with your car.
In other words, it’s often bad news whenever smoke clouds are pouring out of a modern exhaust system. But different colors mean different things, so the first troubleshooting step is to identify whether the smoke is white, black, or bluish gray.
If you’re going to have tailpipe smoke, black’s the color you want. It means that the air-to-fuel ratio is lower than it should be, a condition known as “running rich.” Your car’s definitely not healthy if it’s spewing black fumes, but the likelihood of a full, relatively affordable recovery is high. Here are three common causes and what they mean for you:
• Clogged Fuel Return Line
. A minor repair. You basically just need a new feeder hose for your gas tank.
• Stuck Fuel Pressure Regulator. Another relatively minor issue. Depending on the car, you could be done in under an hour for less.
• Leaking Fuel Injector(s). The labor in this case may be bit more involved, but it’s still a plug-and-play operation. Your engine is fundamentally okay.
Diagnosing a white-smoke issue can be tricky on cold winter mornings, when even tip-top exhaust systems pump out dense white clouds due to low temperatures. But if you think the whiteness is your car’s fault rather than the climate’s, brace yourself for bad news. Technically speaking, white smoke indicates that coolant has leaked into the combustion chamber, which ordinarily contains only air and fuel. There are a few potential explanations:
• Blown Head Gasket. This is probably the best-case scenario, as it means that your engine’s structural integrity has likely not been compromised. Still, the head gasket lives between the engine block and cylinder head(s), so major surgery is required to replace it.
• Cracked Cylinder Head. Sometimes a skilled welder can salvage a cracked head, but it’s a serious repair. Time to weigh your options. Depending on the age and value of your car, you may want to consider cutting your losses and getting rid of it.
• Cracked Engine Block. Same story here: Be aware this is a major repair.
Bluish-gray smoke indicates that oil
is leaking into the combustion chamber, and that’s certainly not where it’s supposed to be. Granted, we’d rather see a bluish-gray cloud than a white one, because there’s a chance the engine could be made whole again without much fuss. Of course, there’s also a chance that a huge rebuild is around the corner. Here are some common scenarios:
• Leaking Valve Seals
. Replacing valve seals is hardly a trivial job, requiring partial disassembly of the engine to complete. But once your mechanic gets access to the seals, the replacement procedure is as simple as a few tugs with a pair of pliers. This is targeted surgery that stops well short of a rebuild in terms of both cost and complexity.
• Stuck PCV Valve
. The PCV system (for “Positive Crankcase Ventilation”) is one reason why cars burn so much cleaner these days. It cuts down on harmful emissions by recycling some of those would-be fumes back into the combustion chamber. But when the PCV valve gets stuck, pressure builds up, and oil leaks occur. Happily, PCV valves typically aren’t expensive, and putting in a new one should be a quick job for your mechanic.
• Worn Piston Rings. This isn’t good news. If your mechanic suspects worn rings, a compression test is next, and a positive result means you’re headed for a rebuilt engine. The pistons must be removed in order to get at the rings, and no one’s going to go to all that trouble without rejuvenating the other components in there, too.
• Worn Cylinder Walls. Unless you happen to have replaceable cylinder sleeves, worn cylinder walls typically mean that a partial rebuild is inevitable. Your mechanic will remove the engine block and either have the cylinder walls sleeved by a machinist, or else install a new block altogether.
In conclusion, your exhaust system gives you a crucial window into the health of your engine. If you see smoke that’s abnormal in any way, give your technician a call to book an appointment. They'll help keep your vehicle running smoothly.